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时间:2019-03-22 来源:菜谱大全家常菜


  Tour Guide: OK, everyone, here’s our next exhibit. Do you see the body of the little bird in that bottle? That is a dusky seaside sparrow. It was an old male that died on June 16, 1987. It’s kind of sad because he was the very last dusky seaside sparrow in the world. They’re now extinct. Yes, you have a question?

  Male: Do you know why they became extinct?

  Tour Guide: Basically, they lost their habitat. See, the dusky seaside sparrow lived only in one place—on Merritt Island in Florida. The island had a lot of mosquitoes and wetlands. The people on Merritt Island used chemicals to kill the mosquitoes.

  Tour Guide: Those chemicals were also very harmful to the sparrows, and many died. In addition, the people on Merritt Island tried to control and exploit the wetlands. As they altered them, the wetlands were no longer a good habitat for the sparrows. The birds died one by one until there weren’t any left.

  Female: So, if people were to blame, can’t we make sure something like that never happens again?

  Tour Guide: We’re trying. The situation with the dusky seaside sparrow makes one thing very clear. We need to protect endangered animals. However, it’s a better strategy to protect the animals and

  their habitats, too. After all, if an animal’s habitat is destroyed, the animal will likely become extinct.

  Tour Guide: We’re trying. The situation with the dusky seaside sparrow makes one thing very clear. We need to protect endangered animals. However, it’s a better strategy to protect the animals and

  their habitats, too. After all, if an animal’s habitat is destroyed, the animal will likely become extinct. That’s why the Endangered Species Act, which was passed in the United States in 1973, protects both endangered animals and their habitats. For example, the steelhead trout lives in rivers and streams on the west coast of the United States—the Columbia River in Washington state for instance. Recently, both the fish and the river came under the protection of the Endangered Species Act.

  Male: But how can we protect large areas such as rivers and forests? No one—not even the government—can afford to buy or control all the land that endangered species live on.

  Tour Guide: Good point. In fact, that’s what makes the Endangered Species Act difficult to fully enforce. There’s an ongoing conflict between some landowners and the government. Take the case of the gray wolf, for instance. At one time, the wolves were common all over North America, but by the 1930s they were nearly all killed. Then in 1973, the wolves came under the protection of the Endangered Species Act, along with huge areas of land—in Wyoming and Idaho, for example. This angered ranchers. They think they should have the right to shoot wolves that threaten their sheep and cows.

  Tour Guide: So, landowners may understand the need for the protection of endangered species, but it’s understandable that they might also feel that the Endangered Species Act violates their rights. Yes?

  Female: Is the law working? I mean, what is the status of endangered species today in the United States?

  Tour Guide: Unfortunately, the situation of threatened and endangered animals is worse now than in 1973, even with the Endangered Species Act in place. Reports on topics such as habitat loss, deforestation, and overfishing show that the situation for many species is far worse now than it was in 1973. Let me be more specific. Right now over 1,300 species in the United States are listed as endangered or threatened.

  Tour Guide: And, it’s important to keep in mind that not many species are ever taken off the list. Since 1973, in fact, only around 39 species have been removed from the Endangered Species list. But that number doesn’t indicate the complete story. What’s significant about that number is that only 14 species were removed because they癫痫病有哪些早期症状 had actually recovered. Nine species became extinct, and the others were removed from the list after scientists found evidence that listing the species had been a mistake in the first place. Meanwhile, another 300 species may soon be added to the list, including a plant, the Las Vegas buckwheat, and an insect, the Miami blue butterfly. So, you see, even with the Endangered Species Act in place, we’re not making as much progress as we would like. Any more questions? OK, let’s move on to the next exhibit. This way, please.




  导游:这些化学品也非常有害于麻雀,许多死亡。此外,人们对梅里特岛试图控制和利用湿地。当他们改变他们,湿地不再为麻雀一个良好的栖息。鸟儿死亡逐个,直到有没有留下。 女:所以,如果人们不争气,我们不能确保这样的事情不会再发生?




  它们的栖息地,也是。毕竟,如果一个动物的栖息地被破坏,动物可能会灭绝。这就是为什么濒危物种法案,这是美国于1973年通过,同时保护濒危动物和它们的栖息地。例如,虹鳟住在河流和对美国 - 哥伦比亚河在华盛顿州,例如西海岸流。近日,无论是鱼和河牌濒危物种法案的保护之下。









  A |

  Narrator: It’s a problem all over the world. Increased human populations mean smaller habitats for our animal neighbors. Nowhere have human populations exploded as in India—and that has meant trouble for some animals. You might think that the mighty crocodile wouldn’t be affected by human population growth—but you would be wrong. Today the crocodile is on the run. Rom Whitaker is a herpetologist. He studies amphibians and reptiles. Rom is determined to save the mugger crocodile from the growing pressure of India’s human populations.

  Rom Whitaker (Herpetologist): Crocs live in wetlands. But most of India’s swamps and riversides are now rice fields and farms. So crocs have lost virtually all of their habitat.

  Narrator: Rom founded the Madras Crocodile Bank in 1975 to breed and study native crocodiles. It is a reptile zoo—one of the largest in the world. There are thousands of crocs here including the largest captive population of mugger crocodiles in the world.

  Rom Whitaker: Another routine day at the crocodile bank size-sorting some of these bullies, getting them into another enclosure. You know, we have 3,000 of these mugger crocodiles here, and nowhere to let them go. People moved into crocodile habitat here in India a long time ago. There’s just nothing left.

  B |

  Narrator: The mugger once roamed the lowlands in large numbers from Iran to Myanmar. Today only a few thousand are scattered in the wild throughout the Indian subcontinent. Now the last hope for the mugger may lie to the south of India in the country of Sri Lanka. Rom is headed back to Sri Lanka’s Yala National Park after almost 30 years to see if the thriving mugger community he remembers is still there.

  Rom Whitaker: Really the only chance the mugger has in the wild is here, in Sri Lanka. If they die out here, they’re probably gone for good. To the casual observer, this may not look much like croc country.

  Rom Whi忻州羊羔疯要治疗多久taker: But hidden in this dry forest are many lakes and ponds created by an ancient people to irrigate their crops. The people are long gone, but the pools remain. That’s how the world’s largest population of wild muggers has been able to survive.

  D |

  Rom Whitaker: Hey, a baby croc. Yeah, there you go. There you go. Ah, he’s gorgeous. Look at those colors. For years I’ve wanted to come back to Yala to see how the mugger is doing. It’s not a well-studied species, so the only way is to see for myself. Finding healthy young ones is a very good omen. But it’s only a start. I won’t really know how things are until I see how the full-grown mugger is doing.

  Narrator: From this part of Yala National Park, the modern world is not even visible.

  Rom Whitaker: This is a time of plenty. There’s enough to eat and drink, and the waters are high. The key to everything here is the water—plants, trees, animals. They all depend on it, and life changes dramatically when it dries up.

  Narrator: The mugger does not make a habit of dining on humans, but any animal coming close to the water to drink better stay on guard. A certain edginess is understandable when 13 feet of reptile could be hidden just beneath the surface of the water. Using its powerful tail, the mugger can reach startling speeds underwater. But its most deadly skill may be patience.

  Rom Whitaker: Nighttime is the best time to census crocodiles. Their eye shine gives them away. They can’t help it. The reflective tapetum in their eye reflects the light back. It’s really bright ... watch. Man, this place is absolutely teeming with crocodiles. I just counted 140 crocodiles probably, give or take 20 or 30. Muggers can be solitary, but there are times of the year when they come together.

  Rom Whitaker: One such time is for a ritual that can get quite bloody. Contrary to popular legend— muggers are for the most part pretty laid-back, sociable animals. In fact, they spend much of their time just basking in the sun. But when mating season approaches, they are also intensely territorial, and any spot with deep water is worth fighting for.

  Narrator: The battles are part of a fierce struggle for dominance. The winner gets the prize—his pick of the females. The combat can be very brutal and sometimes fatal. In the final stage of the dominance fight, this big male flaunts his position by raising his head and tail out of the water. One young male issues a challenge. The big male boldly responds, and the younger croc decides to retreat.

  Rom Whitaker: It’s amazing to watch this ritual unfold. These crocs could kill each other—and sometimes do—but in this test of strength, the losers usually live to fight another day.

  Narrator: Finally, the last rival is chased out of the pond.

  Rom Whitaker: The battle is over; the big male has the pond to himself now. And the stage is set for what’s really important—courtship.

  Narrator: The victor has won the right to mate with the local female of his choice.

  Rom Whitaker: The male is all set to mate, but nothing is going to happen until she’s good and ready.

  Narrator: It is said that in the natural world, the only real constant is change. But muggers have been acting out this ritual for more than 100 million years—since they shared the world with the Tyrannosaurus Rex. If the muggers can continue to live and produce healthy babies in Yala National Park, they can hopefully survive.

  A |





  C |

  旁白:劫匪一度横跨大量低地从伊朗到缅治疗癫痫有什么方法甸。如今只有几千分散在整个印度次大陆野外。现在的抢劫犯最后的希望可能在于印度在斯里兰卡的国南部。 ROM是经过近30年的头球回斯里兰卡亚拉国家公园,看是否繁荣的抢劫犯社区,他记得还是有的。


  罗惠特克:但是隐藏在这个干燥的森林是许多湖泊和由古代人创建的灌溉庄稼的池塘。人们早已不复存在,但仍池。这是世界上最大的野生歹徒的人口是如何能够生存下来。 开发|










  罗惠特克:战斗已经结束;大的男性现在有池塘自己。和舞台设置为真正重要的东西 - 求爱。 旁白:胜利者赢得了与他所选择的本地女性交配的权利。



  Professor: OK, settle down, everyone. As you know, today we’re going to hear our first student debate. Today’s topic is on the pros and cons of legalized hunting. First, Yumi will present arguments in support of hunting. Raoul will respond to her points and present his arguments against hunting. Speakers, are you ready?

  Raoul: Yes.

  Yumi: Ready.

  Professor: Yumi, please begin.

  Yumi: Thank you. Well, the main argument I want to make today is that hunting contributes to wildlife conservation in a few important ways.

  Yumi: First, uh, contrary to what you might think, hunting actually helps many species survive by controlling their populations. So, for example, without hunting, deer populations would be too large, and many animals would starve because there wouldn’t be enough food to sustain them. Raoul: That’s a good argument, but I think you’re ignoring an important point. Another reason deer populations could grow too large is because we have killed off wolves and mountain lions, um, and other animals that used to hunt deer. So, instead of allowing humans to hunt, we should allow populations of meat-eating animals to recover.

  Yumi: OK, but don’t forget that wolves and mountain lions don’t just eat deer and elk. They also eat sheep and cows, and that’s, that’s a problem for ranchers. So, this is not a simple issue.

  Yumi: Anyway, let me continue with my next point. The second way that hunting supports wildlife conservation is through the sale of stamps. Many hunters have to buy stamps before they can legally hunt birds— for instance, ducks and geese. Oh, and when I say stamps, I don’t mean the type of stamps you use to mail a letter. The stamps I’m talking about are a kind of license to hunt. In the United States, the government’s Duck Stamp program raises more than 25 million dollars annually. And a lot of that money is used for protecting and maintaining bird habitats. Since 1934—that’s when the first stamps were sold—these funds have been used to buy 2.1 million hectares of land for wildlife conservation. So, as you can see, hunters actually help wildlife conservation efforts.

  Professor: Thank you, Yumi. Now let’s hear from Raoul, who will present the other side of the issue.

  Raoul: Thank you. Before I get started, I want to respond to Yumi’s point about money that’s raised through the Duck Stamp program. It seems to me that if hunters need a license to kill ducks and other wildlife, we could also make tourists pay when they visit and observe animals in their natural habitats. In fact,天津治癫痫哪家医院好 I think that’s what the national parks do. I visited Yosemite National Park last May, and it cost me $20 per car to get in. We could raise those fees if necessary. OK, so

  to get back on topic, my main argument against hunting is that it’s cruel. Many animals that are shot don’t die immediately. It must be really painful and, um, that’s why hunting should be outlawed.

  Yumi: I have to respond to that. Do you eat steak? What about the suffering of cows when they are killed for meat? Do you care about that? Mosthunters are careful to cause as little suffering as possible.

  Raoul: Maybe most hunters do, but not all. Some hunters leave wounded animals to die slowly and painfully as the hunters pose for photographs. And some, some kill large numbers of animals that they have no intention of eating. In addition, there is a lot of irresponsible hunting that goes on. In rural Virginia—where I’m from—some of my neighbors drive the roads at night, using illegal lights to find and shoot deer. They also shoot deer out of season, and that’s illegal. And in Shenandoah National Park in Virginia, authorities recently caught a group of hunters who were shooting black bears and selling their body parts for medicines.

  Yumi: You’re right that these kinds of violations occur. However, they are rare. That’s why you read about them in the newspapers when they happen. Instead of focusing on the small number of irresponsible hunters, we need to think about the 98 percent of hunters who follow the law and kill only what they can eat. Hunters make it possible for the rest of us to enjoy seeing wild animals in their natural habitat.

  Professor: I’m afraid that’s all the time we have. Thanks to both Yumi and Raoul for contributing their arguments to our debate. Now, let’s take a vote. Which side of the issue do you find more convincing? After listening to our speakers, are you in favor of hunting or against it?





  由美:谢谢。好吧,我今天要说的主要论点是,狩猎有利于野生动物保护中的几个重要方面。 由美:首先,恩,相反,你可能会认为,其实狩猎帮助许多物种通过控制其人口生存。因此,例如,不狩猎,鹿的数量会过大,许多动物会饿死,因为不会有足够的食物来维持他们。 拉乌尔:这是一个很好的理由,但我觉得你忽略了重要的一点。另一个原因鹿的数量可能增长过大是因为我们已经杀死了用来狩猎鹿狼和山狮,嗯,和其他动物。所以,与其让人类打猎,我们应该允许肉食动物种群恢复。





  察动物的游客支付。事实上,我认为这就是国家公园做。我参观优胜美地国家公园去年五月,它的成本我每车$ 20获得。如果需要,我们可以提高这些费用。好了,让回到主题,我对狩猎的主要论点是,它的残酷。被枪杀的许多动物没有立即死亡。它必须是真的很痛苦和,嗯,这就是为什么狩猎应予取缔。